Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Tools for Other in-Line Pumps Free Essays

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Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Importance of Punctuality in the Military Essay Example For Students

The Importance of Punctuality in the Military Essay Promptness is the trait of having the option to finish a necessary assignment or satisfy an ethical obligation previously or at a formerly assigned time. There is frequently an understanding that a modest quantity of delay is worthy; ordinarily ten or fifteen minutes in Western societies. In certain societies, for example, Japanese society, or in the military there essentially is no stipend. A few societies have an implicit understanding that genuine cutoff times are not quite the same as expressed cutoff times; for instance, it might be comprehended in a specific culture that individuals will turn up an hour later than publicized. For this situation, since everybody comprehends that a 9am gathering will really begin around 10am, nobody is hindered when everybody turns up at 10am. In societies which esteem timeliness, being late is commensurate to demonstrating slight for anothers time and might be viewed as annoying. In such cases, timeliness might be implemented by social punishments, for instance by barring low-status tenderfoots from gatherings altogether. Promptness, time esteem and lining hypothesis In numerous circumstances the necessity for reliability is hilter kilter. Being at the ideal spot at the opportune time for any individual from the Army is amazingly basic to the guard of the whole United States of America. This is a result of this that being on time is astoundingly significant. Constancy, responsibility, consistency and control are on the whole essentially identified with being on schedule. Moreover, instantaneousness likewise shows that the individual Soldier reaches skyward and has their needs straight. In any case, being the place one should be at the named time will consistently be one of the most significant parts of being a Soldier. This is the reason inability to be on time seriously impedes mission ability and availability, yet additionally can indeed cost pointless death toll. Realize that it is fundamental for those in the Armed Forces are held to a better quality. While dependability remains and consistently will, an incredibly indispensable part of military bearing and control. It has direct connection to soldierly appearance, battle status, crucial, and basically every feature of Military life and duty. One can't put enough accentuation on the fact that it is so critical to be reliably on schedule. For example; an officer is late or maybe doesn't report at all to a spot at the time requested. That adequately bargains and decreases the productivity of which the undertaking is to be finished. In an extraordinary case an officer not being on time to mitigate the present gatekeepers post would cause the battle viability and preparation of the unrelieved watchman to be incredibly diminished. This would be brought about by weakness, or absence of provisions, and so forth. Thusly the watchman post could be undermined and the security of the region or Forward Operating Base could be penetrated. These things do happen, nonetheless, they can without a doubt be maintained a strategic distance from by only, by and by, being on schedule.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Oh look, an update

Oh look, an update I havent posted in a long time. This is largely because I have been swamped with work. This term is a crash course in time management. Ill have more real updates soon I actually have some planned but I figured that Id let you know what Im taking this term, since some of you might be interested. 9.07 (Statistical Methods) Its the probability and statistics class for course 9 (Brain Cognitive Sciences). Its, well, a statistics class, with a focus on neuroscience-related applications. All course 9 students have to take a probability and statistics class (either 9.07 or one of the others) for the major. Honestly, I hate the textbook more than just about any other textbook Ive had to use, but I like the material. Its relevant to what I want to do. 6.033 (Computer Systems Engineering) Most people who take this do so because theyre in a major for which its required. Also, because theyre computer geeks, and this is a class that plays to the strengths of computer geeks. Im in it for two major reasons. The first is that Im a systems geek. Not computer systems in particular, but systems in general. I study the brain, remember? Thats an interesting system, there. I like thinking about systems, and patterns. The second reason is that I dont have as much computer clue as Id like, and Id like to get more. The technical papers that we read are interesting, though I struggle with the jargon. Theyve covered, among other things, the design of X Windows, the structure of the UNIX time-sharing system, and the design of the Ethernet. 6.170 (Laboratory in Software Engineering) Death by Java. The computer language, not the coffee, though I guess if youre a coffee drinker and dont manage your time well it could be death by that form of Java too. It lives up to its reputation as a time sink. I like that so much of it is hands-on, and that the software were writing actually seems like a useful application rather than an exercise (problem sets 2-6 involve different aspects of building a software system that finds the shortest routes between points in Cambridge and Boston, kind of like Google Maps but local and with some different features). SP.776 (Design for Demining) This one is getting an entry of its own soon. Throughout the world, there are land mines left over from military conflicts, causing injury, death, and economic loss to civilians. Throughout the world, deminers are working to clear the land of mines so that people can inhabit it safely. We design products to make their job safer, more efficient, and more effective. Some products from past years are now in use throughout the humanitarian demining community. Good luck to those waiting for their college decisions!

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Defining Racial Prejudice

Words such as racism, prejudice, and stereotype are often used interchangeably. While the definitions of these terms overlap, they actually mean different things. Racial prejudice, for instance, typically arises from race-based stereotypes. People of influence who prejudge others set the stage for institutional racism to occur. How does this happen? This overview of what racial prejudice is, why it’s dangerous and how to combat prejudice explains in detail. Defining Prejudice It’s difficult to discuss prejudice without clarifying what it is. The fourth edition of the American Heritage College Dictionary provides four meanings for the term—from â€Å"an adverse judgment or opinion formed beforehand or without knowledge or examination of the facts† to â€Å"irrational suspicion or hatred of a particular group, race or religion.† Both definitions apply to the experiences of ethnic minorities in Western society. Of course, the second definition sounds much more menacing than the first, but prejudice in either capacity has the potential to cause a great deal of damage. Likely because of his skin color, English professor and writer Moustafa Bayoumi says that strangers often ask him, â€Å"Where are you from?† When he answers that he was born in Switzerland, grew up in Canada and now lives in Brooklyn, he raises eyebrows. Why? Because the people doing the questioning have a preconceived idea about what Westerners generally and Americans particularly look like. They’re operating under the (erroneous) assumption that natives of the United States don’t have brown skin, black hair or names that aren’t English in origin. Bayoumi acknowledges that the people suspicious of him typically don’t â€Å"have any real malice in mind.† Still, they allow prejudice to guide them. While Bayoumi, a successful author, has taken the questions about his identity in stride, others deeply resent being told that their ancestral origins make them less American than others. Prejudice of this nature may not only lead to psychological t rauma but also to racial discrimination. Arguably no group demonstrates this more than Japanese Americans. Prejudice Begets Institutional Racism When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, the U.S. public viewed Americans of Japanese descent suspiciously. Although many Japanese Americans had never stepped foot in Japan and knew only of the country from their parents and grandparents, the notion spread that the Nisei (second-generation Japanese Americans) were more loyal to the Japanese empire than to their birthplace—the United States. Acting with this idea in mind, the federal government decided to round up more than 110,000 Japanese Americans and place them in internment camps for fear that they would team up with Japan to plot additional attacks against the United States. No evidence suggested that Japanese Americans would commit treason against the U.S. and join forces with Japan. Without trial or due process, the Nisei were stripped of their civil liberties and forced into detention camps. The case of Japanese-American internment is one of the most egregious cases of racial prejudice leading to instit utional racism. In 1988, the U.S. government issued a formal apology to Japanese Americans for this shameful chapter in history. Prejudice and Racial Profiling After the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, Japanese Americans worked to prevent Muslim Americans from being treated how the Nisei and Issei were during World War II. Despite their efforts, hate crimes against Muslims or those perceived to be Muslim or Arab rose following the terrorist attacks. Americans of Arab origin face particular scrutiny on airlines and airports. On the tenth anniversary of 9/11, an Ohio housewife of Arab and Jewish background named Shoshanna Hebshi made international headlines after accusing Frontier Airlines of removing her from a flight simply because of her ethnicity and because she happened to be seated next to two South Asian men. She says that she never left her seat, spoke to other passengers or tinkered with suspicious devices during the flight. In other words, her removal from the plane was without warrant. She’d been racially profiled. â€Å"I believe in tolerance, acceptance and trying–as hard as it sometimes maybe–not to judge a person by the color of their skin or the way they dress,† she stated in a blog post. â€Å"I admit to having fallen to the traps of convention and have made judgments about people that are unfounded. †¦The real test will be if we decide to break free from our fears and hatred and truly try to be good people who practice compassion–even toward those who hate.† The Link Between Racial Prejudice and Stereotypes Prejudice and race-based stereotypes work hand in hand. Due to the pervasive stereotype that an all-American person is blonde and blue-eyed (or at the very least white), those who don’t fit the bill—such as Moustafa Bayoumi—are prejudged to be foreign or â€Å"other.† Never mind that this characterization of an all-American more aptly describes the Nordic population than individuals who are indigenous to the Americas or the diverse groups that make up the United States today. Combating Prejudice Unfortunately, racial stereotypes are so prevalent in Western society that even the very young exhibit signs of prejudice. Given this, it’s inevitable that the most open-minded of individuals will have a prejudiced thought on occasion. One needn’t act on prejudice, however. When President George W. Bush addressed the Republican National Convention in 2004, he called on schoolteachers not to give in to their preconceived ideas about students based on race and class. He singled out the principal of Gainesville Elementary School in Georgia for â€Å"challenging the soft bigotry of low expectations.†Ã‚  Although poor Hispanic children made up most of the student body, 90 percent of pupils there passed state tests in reading and math. â€Å"I believe every child can learn,† Bush said. Had school officials decided that the Gainesville students couldn’t learn because of their ethnic origin or socioeconomic status, institutional racism would have been the likely result. Administrators and teachers would not have worked to give the student body the best education possible, and Gainesville could’ve become yet another failing school. This is what makes prejudice such a threat.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Importance of Hospitality in the Odyssey - 523 Words

In The Odyssey, Homer uses fear of the gods to portray the idea of Xenia, which means hospitality to all, to live a normal and happy life. On multiple occasions people ignore this idea and in result get a streak of bad luck. For example, the suitors that stay in Odysseus house are terrible guests. They get brutally murdered by Odysseus. Polyphemus eats several of Odysseus crew mates. Polyphemus gets blinded by Odysseus. Aegisthus does certain unstated acts with Agamemnons wife, then kills Agamemnon. Agamemnons son, Orestes, kills Aegisthus. Xenia is very important to the day-to-day life of the characters in The Odyssey. The main failure to be a hospitable guest in The Odyssey is that the suitors who believe Odysseus is dead and are waiting to marry his wife, Penelope. The suitors simply cannot stop being terrible guests, spending Os money and â€Å"feasting themselves sick, swilling our glowing wine† (2.61). The suitors are terrible guests, and have no care whatsoever as to th e fact that they are being extremely rude to the gods by being bad guests, and being rude to Odysseus, destroying his house and spending his money. Since the suitors are being such terrible guests, there has to be a consequence. Once Odysseus returns from his travels and becomes re-acquainted with his son Telemachus, they decide that it is time to put an end to the reign of the suitors. Odysseus is shooting arrows through the holes of axes when he â€Å"aimed and shot Antinuous square in the throat†Show MoreRelatedThe Importance of Hospitality Illustrated in Homers Odyssey Essay1708 Words   |  7 Pagesportrayed in The Odyssey, by Homer, where hospitality and good will are the way of things. As decreed by Zeus himself, those who wish the favor of the Gods must welcome foreign and domestic with hospitality. A man was supposed to offer the best of his food, his home, and his knowledge before ever asking for his guest’s name or why he was there. There is a sense that th ose of high status are the main givers of hospitality, but they are not the only ones commanded to offer hospitality. Homer emphasizesRead MoreThe Odyssey1243 Words   |  5 PagesThe Odyssey In Homer’s epic, The Odyssey, each culture treats strangers and guests with distinct differences from every other culture. One of the most hospitable cultures was that of the ancient Greeks, exemplified in Homer s The Odyssey by both gracious hosts and guests. In Greece and The Odyssey, not only was good hospitality etiquette expected, but the added pressure that if they didn’t treat their guests with respect the gods would punish them further compelled excellent manners. The OdysseyRead MoreThe Significance of Xenia in Homer‚Äà ´s The Odyssey1261 Words   |  6 PagesMay 2010 The Significance of Xenia in Homer’s Odyssey The society of Ancient Greece was very much centered around the gods, and a healthy fear of the consequences of not obeying their laws. The next most important staples of the society were the concepts of braver, pride, and hospitality, or Xenia. The significance of these values is shown quite clearly in The Odyssey of Homer. In the first five books of the epic, Telemachos is shown great hospitality by the kings, Nestor, and Menelaos. As HomerRead MoreThe Odyssey Essay1116 Words   |  5 PagesHomer, the author of The Odyssey, portrays many Greek values that make up a righteous man or as, Homer’s character Odysseus, an epic hero. The Odyssey is the story of King Odysseus return from the Trojan War to his kingdom of Ithaca. Stories, like The Odyssey, are told with the intent of delivering a message that was important to their culture. Through characters and situations, The Odyssey promotes and emphasizes many important ancient Greek values such as hospitality, pride, and fate. StressedRead MoreDuality Of Hospitality In Genesis And The Odyssey1441 Words   |  6 PagesThe Duality of Hospitality: In Genesis and the Odyssey In two of the texts considered this Fall—Genesis and the Odyssey, there are many incentives to show hospitality. Hospitality, when extended with the best intentions, speaks to the values of the ancient world as well as of the character of who extend it—usually these gestures are rewarded kindly by the master or divine being of the respective culture, but sometimes they are not. Arguably, hosts in Genesis understand hospitality as an opportunityRead MoreHomer’s Epic The Odyssey Essay645 Words   |  3 PagesA hero isn’t shaped by his strengths but by the values he possesses. Homer’s epic, The Odyssey, reveals the moral and ethical constitution of the ancient Greeks. Over time, certain cultures have grown to value a number of human characteristics. Those who acquire such values become respected heroes. After the fall of Troy, the protagonist of the epic, Odysseus, set sail for his home, Ithaca, where his faithful wife and son were waiting for him. Ov er the course of his journey, Odysseus faced some ofRead MoreEssay Homers Hospitality1386 Words   |  6 Pagesform, in both cultural and religious aspects. Historians often refer to this period as Mycenaean, but due to the culture and values embodied in Homer’s poem, The Odyssey, it is also known as the Homeric Age. In Homer’s world, society consisted of city-states controlled by well-respected Kings. The Homeric Age also focused on the importance of religion where all regions participated in sacrificial tributes to the Gods. Unlike today’s modern society, methods of travel were very limited in the 1600sRead MoreAn Epic Poem The Odyssey 1611 Words   |  7 PagesThe Odyssey, an epic poem written by Greek poet Homer, follows the story of Odysseus, a war hero and king of Ithaca, as he went on a journey to return home from Troy ten years after the Trojan War. On his journey, he was confronted by various monsters, including the one-eyed Cyclops, and faced the loss of his men and his ship. Not to mention, when he returned to his land, he also had to defeat the suitors who had overrun his home and were trying to court his wife, Penelope. Homer not only tells usRead MoreHospitality Is A Recurring Theme Throughout The Odyssey1394 Words   |  6 PagesThe Lack of Hospitality In Polyphemos In The Ancient Greek Culture Hospitality is a recurring theme throughout the Odyssey. Whether it is how Penelope and the people at Ithaca treat their guests, or how Oddyseus and his companions are welcomed in many of the lands they arrive to, hospitality is revealed as a significant feature and value in the Ancient Greek society. In The Odyssey by Homer, Odysseus, the main character, has different types of encounters throughout his long years of adventure. InRead MoreEssay about Gift-Giving in Beowulf and the Odyssey1707 Words   |  7 PagesGift-Giving in Beowulf and the Odyssey Literature has always been an immensely helpful resource when discerning cultural values in societies past and present. Through the study of noteworthy historic fictional and factual, texts we are able to distinguish parallel characteristics present through many different cultures and time periods. These distinguishing characteristics are one of the main things that help us to determine when and how a society, or world culture as a whole changes as time

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Basic Principles of Topics for Synthesis Essay You Can Benefit From Beginning Right Away

The Basic Principles of Topics for Synthesis Essay You Can Benefit From Beginning Right Away Your own essay should be constructed around that text and your principal argument. Be certain that you leave a potent conclusion when writing your essay. The title ought to be a reflection of those. Remember that the absolute most important part of a synthesis essay is to demonstrate the reader an extensive comprehension of the subject. It may require a significant amount of details and evidence. Before you write, it's important to define the term synthesis. The term synthesis is understood to be a blend of elements to form a connected whole. Getting the Best Topics for Synthesis Essay Becoming able to compose a comprehensive, thorough and meaningful essay, with various sources in hand might end up being problematic for some. The principal ideas gathered from the close reading ought to be utilized to justify the usage of a particular source. Once you work through your sources, make a decision as to what position you're likely to take. What you will need is a topic that has many sources that may support more than 1 position. The New Angle On Topics for Synthesis Essay Just Released Parenting topics have a broad array of formulations, based on a subject they're related to. Synthesis topics should not be something which's general expertise, like whether vegetables are good for you. You can look for other fantastic topic ideas on the world wide web. The topic ought to be handled in a detailed and objective way. Selecting a topic is the initial step of your synthesis essay writing, so you've got to put an outstanding effort in choosing one. It is preferable to choose such a topic which you are already well-conversant of. Whatever They Told You About Topics for Synthesis Essay Is Dead Wrong...And Here's Why However you're feeling about the respective topics you have to present your case utilizing evidence from credible sources and create the case your perspective on the problem is correct or at least noteworthy. As you experience an argument, do not neglect to supply your readers with the counter-argument. Now you have your argument down in words, you want to work out how you need to organize and support that argument. Then show the way your argument is stronger. Most Noticeable Topics for Synthesis Essay Once more, the body of the essay should start ou t with information regarding the paragraph's topic. Somehow, this issue of your upcoming essay is dependent on what you would like to do by your paper and the sources you rely on. A synthesis essay is a sort of essay that supposes a distinctive viewpoint on a chosen idea and is contingent on the mixture of many sources, usually three or more. Therefore, synthesis essays involve assembling several elements of information together on a particular topic and presented in a way about the thesis statement. Synthesis essays are typical in high school and college classes hence they might not be a totally new phenomenon to some people. Thus, a synthesis is the sort of essay which offers you as the student several resources to utilize in building a strong claim. The dissertation services make certain that your thesis paper won't be pushed to the wayside. Why Almost Everything You've Learned About Topics for Synthesis Essay Is Wrong You should explain the central facets of a specific phenomenon logically and straightforwardly in order for your audience does not have any trouble understanding it. Why the election method isn't fair. Lousy synthesis topics can arrive in a number of forms. The topic you select for your paper needs to be relevant to the area and society. Keep in mind it's important to choose the synthesis essay type. A potent conclusion is necessary for your synthesis essay. You ought to choose synthesis topics that aren't only intriguing but also reasonable to research. A complete topic for a synthesis paper is one which encourages you to have a stance on a debatable iss ue. Critical thinking and analysis is needed to make sure high excellent synthesis essay content. If you are not able to do proper proofreading, you can get an expert at Essay Agents look at your synthesis essay for a reasonable price. Topics for Synthesis Essay and Topics for Synthesis Essay - The Perfect Combination Space exploration isn't an exception. Doing research on this issue you really like will allow you to find out more about things that fascinate you and you are certain to take pleasure in the process. Guided by means of a set of instructions, you should support your ideas in favor of the specific topic. Focus on a single part of climate change or current environmental problems that you're wondering about. It isn't simple to concentrate on a single topic whenever the options are by no means limited. Limit your topic options just a few but attempt to concentrate on what's really interesting to you.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Reviews Essay Example For Students

Reviews Essay In the 1830’s, when the study of mediaeval architecture was just beginning, the Romanesque style was described as offering â€Å"all of the characteristics of Roman architecture, in an advanced state of degeneracy.†1 Within the last few years a Cistercian monastery — Le Thoronet — equally Romanesque in all of its characteristics has been hailed as the â€Å"architecture of truth.†2 Yet, in spite of this enthusiastic reversal in taste, the interested student or amateur could find no compendium in the English language to assist him in his studies or to satisfy his curiosity about Romanesque building until Kenneth Conant’s Carolingian and Romanesque ArchUecture, 800-1200, appeared in the Pelican series in 19.59. Within a few months of its appearance, Professor Conant’s volume was awarded the Alice David Hitchcock Medal by the Society of Architectural Historians â€Å"for the most distinguished work of scholarship in the history of archit ecture published by an American scholar for the year 1959.† The citation reads: In this work of brilliant scholarship, adorned with many of his lucid restorations, the author presents the complex picture of Early Medieval architecture. His balanced judgment and vast erudition have produced Ð ° of major importance, giving clarity and order to this often obscure phase in the development of Western Architecture. The reader shares with delight the author’s enthusiasm for his subject and follows with ad miration the exciting spatial adventures of these four centuries of expanding spiritual fervor. Years of devoted study and an unrivalled acquaintance with the monuments themselves give a cachet of irreproachable authority to this work of scholarship. Kenneth John Conant, professor of architecture, emeritus, Harvard University, needs no introduction to the readers of Speculum, or indeed, to any student of mediaeval civilization. In these pages he has reviewed most of the books on mediaeval architecture that have appeared in the past two decades; but, of course, it is also in Spfxjulum that he reported on his magnificent excavations and reconstructions of the Abbey of Clunv. Cluny may not have been his first love,for he wrote his doctoral dissertation on Santiago de Compostela, published as a   monograph in 1926. The following year, though, Cluny claimed his attention and this hold has not as yet been relinquished. During these more than thirty years, his eye and pencil, and those of his students, have also roamed widely over the problems of early Christian and early mediaeval architecture, with particular delight in the lost or greatly altered monuments that seem to mark the achieve ments of those complex times. His enquiring mind has included problems in American archaeology and in the development of modern architecture; indeed there arc few aspects in the history of architecture that he has not investigated or lectured upon. But perhaps more significant than anything else in his training and career was his early experience in the practice of architecture. He always has approached each monument as a specific architectural entity and has tried to understand the way in which each building solved its own particular problem. The number of styles and the degree of their variety that must be considered in a survey of western European architecture between 800 and 1200 A.D. presents a formidable problem in and of itself. Although the title of Mr Conant’s volume is Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture, the chapter headings prove that he considers the entire period essentially as Romanesque, or as preparatory for it. Chapter 2, Part One, for instance, is called â€Å"The Carolingian Romanesque.† There is nothing very unusual about such a treatment. Arcisse de Caumont pro posed essentially the same approach in the nineteenth century,* and as recently as 1950 Pierre Lavcdan, in his concise survey of the history of art, treats Caro lingian art in his chapter entitled â€Å"L’Art Roman.†4 I do not wish to argue the point, as there are certainly two sides to the question, but my experience as a teacher would indicate that the truly confusing sequence of dynasties and artistic styles i n the different countries of western Europe during this period can best be made intelligible to a student by identifying their historical environment and the distinguishing characteristics of their different artistic styles, rather than by grouping them together under one rubric, such as Romanesque. Be that as it may, Mr Conant’s primary interest in this volume is with Romanesque archi tecture. The text is divided into seven parts. Part One, â€Å"The Pre-Romanesque and Proto-Romanesque Styles,† begins with a brief discussion of the backgrounds, both institutional and architectural, of mediaeval building and in three following chapters treats the architecture of western Europe from the late eighth through the tenth centuries. Native Son: Reviews EssayWe even have proof of this in regard to Cluny III as can be seen in a twelfth-century miniature showing Gunzo, the architect of Cluny, dreaming about the plan of his church, which is being laid out by means of heavy ropes.6 In fact, it is amazing that sucli seemingly crude methods could have produced such harmonious results, but we must remember that the builders of the twelfth century, whether Romanesque or Early Gothic, were masons, not architects in our sense of the word. And as masons they had an instinct for stone construction unparalleled at any other moment in history. It is also in relation to Cluny III that the term â€Å"half-gothic† first appears (p. 125). In discussing the work on the great church carried forward under Abbot Peter the Venerable, Mr Conant first says that it is â€Å"interesting as showing early premonitions of the Gothic style† (p. 122) — a perfectly reasonable phrase, as is the author’s admission tha t it is difficult to decide precisely what role Cluny played in the creation of Gothic. The invention, though, of the term half- gothic† is not, in my opinion, a very happy one; and its use elsewhere in the text tends to obscure the issue rather than clarify it. For many years historians have stopped using such terms as â€Å"transitional style,† which once referred to the Early Gothic of the twelfth century, because styles are always in the process of transi tion. In the same degree one style may contain elements of another one, but there are no â€Å"half-styles† since there are always dominating characteristics which identify whether a building, or work of art, belongs to one style or another. In Mr Conant’s text, the use of â€Å"half-gothic† seems uncomplimentary to Romanes que, as though the intrinsic qualities of Romanesque architecture were less significant than those of Gothic. I don’t believe that he would admit to such a proposition. Perhaps my reaction is a personal one. In the light of Mr Conant’s interest in modular and proportional systems, it is surprising to find no mention of Cistercian proportions in the chapter on   â€Å"The Cistercians and Their Architecture.† Otto von Simson discusses these proportions in some detail in his The Gothic Cathedral,7 which Mr Conant refers to in his long footnote on the proportions of Cluny 1 (note 24, p. 116). but fails to mention in regard to Cistercian building. Similar proportions are mentioned by Francois Bucher in his Notre-Dame de Bonmont,8 which also provides a careful study of early Cistercian building in Switzerland and is a valuable addition to the bibliography of Cistercian architecture. Parts Four, Five, Six, and Seven treat the â€Å"Mature Romanesque† as it ap peared throughout western Europe, in the Holy Land, and in Scandinavia. No area of Romanesque building is overlooked, but these different areas do not al ways receive equal, or proportionate, treatment. This again is inevitable in a sur vey of this type, where the author’s predilections and direct experience must necessarily be reflected. The discussion of Norman and Anglo-Norman architec ture is very properly delayed until the last chapter, so that the contributions of these regions to the development of Early Gothic are recognized. The fact that Geoffrey Webb’s book, Architecture in Britain: The Middle Ages, had already ap peared in the same series unquestionably curtailed the discussion of English Romanesque. This is unfortunate in a general survey, for among all the variations of Romanesque style, these northern buildings certainly present some of the most challenging and inventive structural forms, as well as an almost sculptural treat ment of the forms themselves. At the beginning of the volume there are twelve extremely useful maps, and following the bibliography, just before the plates of excellent photographs, are fifteen restoration studies from the almost ma gical pen and pencil of the author. Two additional restoration studies in the form of retouched photographs (St- Etienne, Nevers, and the interior of Autun cathedral) are included among the plates. These are so convincing that it is regrettable that notes of some sort were not appended to provide the scholar and student with the bases for the reconstructions. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture should be on every shelf of mediaeval handbooks. The descriptive text is presented through the eyes of an architect and enthusiastic sholar. It is stimulating, because the student or reader is not told exactly what the Romanesque style was. He is given all of the ingredients and invited to formulate his own definition.