Sunday, May 24, 2020
Words such as racism, prejudice, and stereotype are often used interchangeably. While the definitions of these terms overlap, they actually mean different things. Racial prejudice, for instance, typically arises from race-based stereotypes. People of influence who prejudge others set the stage for institutional racism to occur. How does this happen? This overview of what racial prejudice is, why itÃ¢â¬â¢s dangerous and how to combat prejudice explains in detail. Defining Prejudice ItÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to discuss prejudice without clarifying what it is. The fourth edition of the American Heritage College Dictionary provides four meanings for the termÃ¢â¬âfrom Ã¢â¬Å"an adverse judgment or opinion formed beforehand or without knowledge or examination of the factsÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"irrational suspicion or hatred of a particular group, race or religion.Ã¢â¬ Both definitions apply to the experiences of ethnic minorities in Western society. Of course, the second definition sounds much more menacing than the first, but prejudice in either capacity has the potential to cause a great deal of damage. Likely because of his skin color, English professor and writer Moustafa Bayoumi says that strangers often ask him, Ã¢â¬Å"Where are you from?Ã¢â¬ When he answers that he was born in Switzerland, grew up in Canada and now lives in Brooklyn, he raises eyebrows. Why? Because the people doing the questioning have a preconceived idea about what Westerners generally and Americans particularly look like. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re operating under the (erroneous) assumption that natives of the United States donÃ¢â¬â¢t have brown skin, black hair or names that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t English in origin. Bayoumi acknowledges that the people suspicious of him typically donÃ¢â¬â¢t Ã¢â¬Å"have any real malice in mind.Ã¢â¬ Still, they allow prejudice to guide them. While Bayoumi, a successful author, has taken the questions about his identity in stride, others deeply resent being told that their ancestral origins make them less American than others. Prejudice of this nature may not only lead to psychological t rauma but also to racial discrimination. Arguably no group demonstrates this more than Japanese Americans. Prejudice Begets Institutional Racism When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, the U.S. public viewed Americans of Japanese descent suspiciously. Although many Japanese Americans had never stepped foot in Japan and knew only of the country from their parents and grandparents, the notion spread that the Nisei (second-generation Japanese Americans) were more loyal to the Japanese empire than to their birthplaceÃ¢â¬âthe United States. Acting with this idea in mind, the federal government decided to round up more than 110,000 Japanese Americans and place them in internment camps for fear that they would team up with Japan to plot additional attacks against the United States. No evidence suggested that Japanese Americans would commit treason against the U.S. and join forces with Japan. Without trial or due process, the Nisei were stripped of their civil liberties and forced into detention camps. The case of Japanese-American internment is one of the most egregious cases of racial prejudice leading to instit utional racism. In 1988, the U.S. government issued a formal apology to Japanese Americans for this shameful chapter in history. Prejudice and Racial Profiling After the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, Japanese Americans worked to prevent Muslim Americans from being treated how the Nisei and Issei were during World War II. Despite their efforts, hate crimes against Muslims or those perceived to be Muslim or Arab rose following the terrorist attacks. Americans of Arab origin face particular scrutiny on airlines and airports. On the tenth anniversary of 9/11, an Ohio housewife of Arab and Jewish background named Shoshanna Hebshi made international headlines after accusing Frontier Airlines of removing her from a flight simply because of her ethnicity and because she happened to be seated next to two South Asian men. She says that she never left her seat, spoke to other passengers or tinkered with suspicious devices during the flight. In other words, her removal from the plane was without warrant. SheÃ¢â¬â¢d been racially profiled. Ã¢â¬Å"I believe in tolerance, acceptance and tryingÃ¢â¬âas hard as it sometimes maybeÃ¢â¬ânot to judge a person by the color of their skin or the way they dress,Ã¢â¬ she stated in a blog post. Ã¢â¬Å"I admit to having fallen to the traps of convention and have made judgments about people that are unfounded. Ã¢â¬ ¦The real test will be if we decide to break free from our fears and hatred and truly try to be good people who practice compassionÃ¢â¬âeven toward those who hate.Ã¢â¬ The Link Between Racial Prejudice and Stereotypes Prejudice and race-based stereotypes work hand in hand. Due to the pervasive stereotype that an all-American person is blonde and blue-eyed (or at the very least white), those who donÃ¢â¬â¢t fit the billÃ¢â¬âsuch as Moustafa BayoumiÃ¢â¬âare prejudged to be foreign or Ã¢â¬Å"other.Ã¢â¬ Never mind that this characterization of an all-American more aptly describes the Nordic population than individuals who are indigenous to the Americas or the diverse groups that make up the United States today. Combating Prejudice Unfortunately, racial stereotypes are so prevalent in Western society that even the very young exhibit signs of prejudice. Given this, itÃ¢â¬â¢s inevitable that the most open-minded of individuals will have a prejudiced thought on occasion. One neednÃ¢â¬â¢t act on prejudice, however. When President George W. Bush addressed the Republican National Convention in 2004, he called on schoolteachers not to give in to their preconceived ideas about students based on race and class. He singled out the principal of Gainesville Elementary School in Georgia for Ã¢â¬Å"challenging the soft bigotry of low expectations.Ã¢â¬ Ã Although poor Hispanic children made up most of the student body, 90 percent of pupils there passed state tests in reading and math. Ã¢â¬Å"I believe every child can learn,Ã¢â¬ Bush said. Had school officials decided that the Gainesville students couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t learn because of their ethnic origin or socioeconomic status, institutional racism would have been the likely result. Administrators and teachers would not have worked to give the student body the best education possible, and Gainesville couldÃ¢â¬â¢ve become yet another failing school. This is what makes prejudice such a threat.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
In The Odyssey, Homer uses fear of the gods to portray the idea of Xenia, which means hospitality to all, to live a normal and happy life. On multiple occasions people ignore this idea and in result get a streak of bad luck. For example, the suitors that stay in Odysseus house are terrible guests. They get brutally murdered by Odysseus. Polyphemus eats several of Odysseus crew mates. Polyphemus gets blinded by Odysseus. Aegisthus does certain unstated acts with Agamemnons wife, then kills Agamemnon. Agamemnons son, Orestes, kills Aegisthus. Xenia is very important to the day-to-day life of the characters in The Odyssey. The main failure to be a hospitable guest in The Odyssey is that the suitors who believe Odysseus is dead and are waiting to marry his wife, Penelope. The suitors simply cannot stop being terrible guests, spending Os money and Ã¢â¬Å"feasting themselves sick, swilling our glowing wineÃ¢â¬ (2.61). The suitors are terrible guests, and have no care whatsoever as to th e fact that they are being extremely rude to the gods by being bad guests, and being rude to Odysseus, destroying his house and spending his money. Since the suitors are being such terrible guests, there has to be a consequence. Once Odysseus returns from his travels and becomes re-acquainted with his son Telemachus, they decide that it is time to put an end to the reign of the suitors. Odysseus is shooting arrows through the holes of axes when he Ã¢â¬Å"aimed and shot Antinuous square in the throatÃ¢â¬ Show MoreRelatedThe Importance of Hospitality Illustrated in Homers Odyssey Essay1708 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesportrayed in The Odyssey, by Homer, where hospitality and good will are the way of things. As decreed by Zeus himself, those who wish the favor of the Gods must welcome foreign and domestic with hospitality. A man was supposed to offer the best of his food, his home, and his knowledge before ever asking for his guestÃ¢â¬â¢s name or why he was there. There is a sense that th ose of high status are the main givers of hospitality, but they are not the only ones commanded to offer hospitality. Homer emphasizesRead MoreThe Odyssey1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Odyssey In HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s epic, The Odyssey, each culture treats strangers and guests with distinct differences from every other culture. One of the most hospitable cultures was that of the ancient Greeks, exemplified in Homer s The Odyssey by both gracious hosts and guests. In Greece and The Odyssey, not only was good hospitality etiquette expected, but the added pressure that if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t treat their guests with respect the gods would punish them further compelled excellent manners. The OdysseyRead MoreThe Significance of Xenia in HomerÃ¢â¬Å¡ÃâÃ ´s The Odyssey1261 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMay 2010 The Significance of Xenia in HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s Odyssey The society of Ancient Greece was very much centered around the gods, and a healthy fear of the consequences of not obeying their laws. The next most important staples of the society were the concepts of braver, pride, and hospitality, or Xenia. The significance of these values is shown quite clearly in The Odyssey of Homer. In the first five books of the epic, Telemachos is shown great hospitality by the kings, Nestor, and Menelaos. As HomerRead MoreThe Odyssey Essay1116 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHomer, the author of The Odyssey, portrays many Greek values that make up a righteous man or as, HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s character Odysseus, an epic hero. The Odyssey is the story of King Odysseus return from the Trojan War to his kingdom of Ithaca. Stories, like The Odyssey, are told with the intent of delivering a message that was important to their culture. Through characters and situations, The Odyssey promotes and emphasizes many important ancient Greek values such as hospitality, pride, and fate. StressedRead MoreDuality Of Hospitality In Genesis And The Odyssey1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Duality of Hospitality: In Genesis and the Odyssey In two of the texts considered this FallÃ¢â¬âGenesis and the Odyssey, there are many incentives to show hospitality. Hospitality, when extended with the best intentions, speaks to the values of the ancient world as well as of the character of who extend itÃ¢â¬âusually these gestures are rewarded kindly by the master or divine being of the respective culture, but sometimes they are not. Arguably, hosts in Genesis understand hospitality as an opportunityRead MoreHomerÃ¢â¬â¢s Epic The Odyssey Essay645 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesA hero isnÃ¢â¬â¢t shaped by his strengths but by the values he possesses. HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s epic, The Odyssey, reveals the moral and ethical constitution of the ancient Greeks. Over time, certain cultures have grown to value a number of human characteristics. Those who acquire such values become respected heroes. After the fall of Troy, the protagonist of the epic, Odysseus, set sail for his home, Ithaca, where his faithful wife and son were waiting for him. Ov er the course of his journey, Odysseus faced some ofRead MoreEssay Homers Hospitality1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesform, in both cultural and religious aspects. Historians often refer to this period as Mycenaean, but due to the culture and values embodied in HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s poem, The Odyssey, it is also known as the Homeric Age. In HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s world, society consisted of city-states controlled by well-respected Kings. The Homeric Age also focused on the importance of religion where all regions participated in sacrificial tributes to the Gods. Unlike todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern society, methods of travel were very limited in the 1600sRead MoreAn Epic Poem The Odyssey 1611 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Odyssey, an epic poem written by Greek poet Homer, follows the story of Odysseus, a war hero and king of Ithaca, as he went on a journey to return home from Troy ten years after the Trojan War. On his journey, he was confronted by various monsters, including the one-eyed Cyclops, and faced the loss of his men and his ship. Not to mention, when he returned to his land, he also had to defeat the suitors who had overrun his home and were trying to court his wife, Penelope. Homer not only tells usRead MoreHospitality Is A Recurring Theme Throughout The Odyssey1394 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Lack of Hospitality In Polyphemos In The Ancient Greek Culture Hospitality is a recurring theme throughout the Odyssey. Whether it is how Penelope and the people at Ithaca treat their guests, or how Oddyseus and his companions are welcomed in many of the lands they arrive to, hospitality is revealed as a significant feature and value in the Ancient Greek society. In The Odyssey by Homer, Odysseus, the main character, has different types of encounters throughout his long years of adventure. InRead MoreEssay about Gift-Giving in Beowulf and the Odyssey1707 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGift-Giving in Beowulf and the Odyssey Literature has always been an immensely helpful resource when discerning cultural values in societies past and present. Through the study of noteworthy historic fictional and factual, texts we are able to distinguish parallel characteristics present through many different cultures and time periods. These distinguishing characteristics are one of the main things that help us to determine when and how a society, or world culture as a whole changes as time
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Basic Principles of Topics for Synthesis Essay You Can Benefit From Beginning Right Away Your own essay should be constructed around that text and your principal argument. Be certain that you leave a potent conclusion when writing your essay. The title ought to be a reflection of those. Remember that the absolute most important part of a synthesis essay is to demonstrate the reader an extensive comprehension of the subject. It may require a significant amount of details and evidence. Before you write, it's important to define the term synthesis. The term synthesis is understood to be a blend of elements to form a connected whole. Getting the Best Topics for Synthesis Essay Becoming able to compose a comprehensive, thorough and meaningful essay, with various sources in hand might end up being problematic for some. The principal ideas gathered from the close reading ought to be utilized to justify the usage of a particular source. Once you work through your sources, make a decision as to what position you're likely to take. What you will need is a topic that has many sources that may support more than 1 position. The New Angle On Topics for Synthesis Essay Just Released Parenting topics have a broad array of formulations, based on a subject they're related to. Synthesis topics should not be something which's general expertise, like whether vegetables are good for you. You can look for other fantastic topic ideas on the world wide web. The topic ought to be handled in a detailed and objective way. Selecting a topic is the initial step of your synthesis essay writing, so you've got to put an outstanding effort in choosing one. It is preferable to choose such a topic which you are already well-conversant of. Whatever They Told You About Topics for Synthesis Essay Is Dead Wrong...And Here's Why However you're feeling about the respective topics you have to present your case utilizing evidence from credible sources and create the case your perspective on the problem is correct or at least noteworthy. As you experience an argument, do not neglect to supply your readers with the counter-argument. Now you have your argument down in words, you want to work out how you need to organize and support that argument. Then show the way your argument is stronger. Most Noticeable Topics for Synthesis Essay Once more, the body of the essay should start ou t with information regarding the paragraph's topic. Somehow, this issue of your upcoming essay is dependent on what you would like to do by your paper and the sources you rely on. A synthesis essay is a sort of essay that supposes a distinctive viewpoint on a chosen idea and is contingent on the mixture of many sources, usually three or more. Therefore, synthesis essays involve assembling several elements of information together on a particular topic and presented in a way about the thesis statement. Synthesis essays are typical in high school and college classes hence they might not be a totally new phenomenon to some people. Thus, a synthesis is the sort of essay which offers you as the student several resources to utilize in building a strong claim. The dissertation services make certain that your thesis paper won't be pushed to the wayside. Why Almost Everything You've Learned About Topics for Synthesis Essay Is Wrong You should explain the central facets of a specific phenomenon logically and straightforwardly in order for your audience does not have any trouble understanding it. Why the election method isn't fair. Lousy synthesis topics can arrive in a number of forms. The topic you select for your paper needs to be relevant to the area and society. Keep in mind it's important to choose the synthesis essay type. A potent conclusion is necessary for your synthesis essay. You ought to choose synthesis topics that aren't only intriguing but also reasonable to research. A complete topic for a synthesis paper is one which encourages you to have a stance on a debatable iss ue. Critical thinking and analysis is needed to make sure high excellent synthesis essay content. If you are not able to do proper proofreading, you can get an expert at Essay Agents look at your synthesis essay for a reasonable price. Topics for Synthesis Essay and Topics for Synthesis Essay - The Perfect Combination Space exploration isn't an exception. Doing research on this issue you really like will allow you to find out more about things that fascinate you and you are certain to take pleasure in the process. Guided by means of a set of instructions, you should support your ideas in favor of the specific topic. Focus on a single part of climate change or current environmental problems that you're wondering about. It isn't simple to concentrate on a single topic whenever the options are by no means limited. Limit your topic options just a few but attempt to concentrate on what's really interesting to you.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Reviews Essay In the 1830Ã¢â¬â¢s, when the study of mediaeval architecture was just beginning, the Romanesque style was described as offering Ã¢â¬Å"all of the characteristics of Roman architecture, in an advanced state of degeneracy.Ã¢â¬ 1 Within the last few years a Cistercian monastery Ã¢â¬â Le Thoronet Ã¢â¬â equally Romanesque in all of its characteristics has been hailed as the Ã¢â¬Å"architecture of truth.Ã¢â¬ 2 Yet, in spite of this enthusiastic reversal in taste, the interested student or amateur could find no compendium in the English language to assist him in his studies or to satisfy his curiosity about Romanesque building until Kenneth ConantÃ¢â¬â¢s Carolingian and Romanesque ArchUecture, 800-1200, appeared in the Pelican series in 19.59. Within a few months of its appearance, Professor ConantÃ¢â¬â¢s volume was awarded the Alice David Hitchcock Medal by the Society of Architectural Historians Ã¢â¬Å"for the most distinguished work of scholarship in the history of archit ecture published by an American scholar for the year 1959.Ã¢â¬ The citation reads: In this work of brilliant scholarship, adorned with many of his lucid restorations, the author presents the complex picture of Early Medieval architecture. His balanced judgment and vast erudition have produced Ã ° of major importance, giving clarity and order to this often obscure phase in the development of Western Architecture. The reader shares with delight the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s enthusiasm for his subject and follows with ad miration the exciting spatial adventures of these four centuries of expanding spiritual fervor. Years of devoted study and an unrivalled acquaintance with the monuments themselves give a cachet of irreproachable authority to this work of scholarship. Kenneth John Conant, professor of architecture, emeritus, Harvard University, needs no introduction to the readers of Speculum, or indeed, to any student of mediaeval civilization. In these pages he has reviewed most of the books on mediaeval architecture that have appeared in the past two decades; but, of course, it is also in Spfxjulum that he reported on his magnificent excavations and reconstructions of the Abbey of Clunv. Cluny may not have been his first love,for he wrote his doctoral dissertation on Santiago de Compostela, published as aÃ monograph in 1926. The following year, though, Cluny claimed his attention and this hold has not as yet been relinquished. During these more than thirty years, his eye and pencil, and those of his students, have also roamed widely over the problems of early Christian and early mediaeval architecture, with particular delight in the lost or greatly altered monuments that seem to mark the achieve ments of those complex times. His enquiring mind has included problems in American archaeology and in the development of modern architecture; indeed there arc few aspects in the history of architecture that he has not investigated or lectured upon. But perhaps more significant than anything else in his training and career was his early experience in the practice of architecture. He always has approached each monument as a specific architectural entity and has tried to understand the way in which each building solved its own particular problem. The number of styles and the degree of their variety that must be considered in a survey of western European architecture between 800 and 1200 A.D. presents a formidable problem in and of itself. Although the title of Mr ConantÃ¢â¬â¢s volume is Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture, the chapter headings prove that he considers the entire period essentially as Romanesque, or as preparatory for it. Chapter 2, Part One, for instance, is called Ã¢â¬Å"The Carolingian Romanesque.Ã¢â¬ There is nothing very unusual about such a treatment. Arcisse de Caumont pro posed essentially the same approach in the nineteenth century,* and as recently as 1950 Pierre Lavcdan, in his concise survey of the history of art, treats Caro lingian art in his chapter entitled Ã¢â¬Å"LÃ¢â¬â¢Art Roman.Ã¢â¬ 4 I do not wish to argue the point, as there are certainly two sides to the question, but my experience as a teacher would indicate that the truly confusing sequence of dynasties and artistic styles i n the different countries of western Europe during this period can best be made intelligible to a student by identifying their historical environment and the distinguishing characteristics of their different artistic styles, rather than by grouping them together under one rubric, such as Romanesque. Be that as it may, Mr ConantÃ¢â¬â¢s primary interest in this volume is with Romanesque archi tecture. The text is divided into seven parts. Part One, Ã¢â¬Å"The Pre-Romanesque and Proto-Romanesque Styles,Ã¢â¬ begins with a brief discussion of the backgrounds, both institutional and architectural, of mediaeval building and in three following chapters treats the architecture of western Europe from the late eighth through the tenth centuries. Native Son: Reviews EssayWe even have proof of this in regard to Cluny III as can be seen in a twelfth-century miniature showing Gunzo, the architect of Cluny, dreaming about the plan of his church, which is being laid out by means of heavy ropes.6 In fact, it is amazing that sucli seemingly crude methods could have produced such harmonious results, but we must remember that the builders of the twelfth century, whether Romanesque or Early Gothic, were masons, not architects in our sense of the word. And as masons they had an instinct for stone construction unparalleled at any other moment in history. It is also in relation to Cluny III that the term Ã¢â¬Å"half-gothicÃ¢â¬ first appears (p. 125). In discussing the work on the great church carried forward under Abbot Peter the Venerable, Mr Conant first says that it is Ã¢â¬Å"interesting as showing early premonitions of the Gothic styleÃ¢â¬ (p. 122) Ã¢â¬â a perfectly reasonable phrase, as is the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s admission tha t it is difficult to decide precisely what role Cluny played in the creation of Gothic. The invention, though, of the term half- gothicÃ¢â¬ is not, in my opinion, a very happy one; and its use elsewhere in the text tends to obscure the issue rather than clarify it. For many years historians have stopped using such terms as Ã¢â¬Å"transitional style,Ã¢â¬ which once referred to the Early Gothic of the twelfth century, because styles are always in the process of transi tion. In the same degree one style may contain elements of another one, but there are no Ã¢â¬Å"half-stylesÃ¢â¬ since there are always dominating characteristics which identify whether a building, or work of art, belongs to one style or another. In Mr ConantÃ¢â¬â¢s text, the use of Ã¢â¬Å"half-gothicÃ¢â¬ seems uncomplimentary to Romanes que, as though the intrinsic qualities of Romanesque architecture were less significant than those of Gothic. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe that he would admit to such a proposition. Perhaps my reaction is a personal one. In the light of Mr ConantÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in modular and proportional systems, it is surprising to find no mention of Cistercian proportions in the chapter onÃ Ã¢â¬Å"The Cistercians and Their Architecture.Ã¢â¬ Otto von Simson discusses these proportions in some detail in his The Gothic Cathedral,7 which Mr Conant refers to in his long footnote on the proportions of Cluny 1 (note 24, p. 116). but fails to mention in regard to Cistercian building. Similar proportions are mentioned by Francois Bucher in his Notre-Dame de Bonmont,8 which also provides a careful study of early Cistercian building in Switzerland and is a valuable addition to the bibliography of Cistercian architecture. Parts Four, Five, Six, and Seven treat the Ã¢â¬Å"Mature RomanesqueÃ¢â¬ as it ap peared throughout western Europe, in the Holy Land, and in Scandinavia. No area of Romanesque building is overlooked, but these different areas do not al ways receive equal, or proportionate, treatment. This again is inevitable in a sur vey of this type, where the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s predilections and direct experience must necessarily be reflected. The discussion of Norman and Anglo-Norman architec ture is very properly delayed until the last chapter, so that the contributions of these regions to the development of Early Gothic are recognized. The fact that Geoffrey WebbÃ¢â¬â¢s book, Architecture in Britain: The Middle Ages, had already ap peared in the same series unquestionably curtailed the discussion of English Romanesque. This is unfortunate in a general survey, for among all the variations of Romanesque style, these northern buildings certainly present some of the most challenging and inventive structural forms, as well as an almost sculptural treat ment of the forms themselves. At the beginning of the volume there are twelve extremely useful maps, and following the bibliography, just before the plates of excellent photographs, are fifteen restoration studies from the almost ma gical pen and pencil of the author. Two additional restoration studies in the form of retouched photographs (St- Etienne, Nevers, and the interior of Autun cathedral) are included among the plates. These are so convincing that it is regrettable that notes of some sort were not appended to provide the scholar and student with the bases for the reconstructions. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture should be on every shelf of mediaeval handbooks. The descriptive text is presented through the eyes of an architect and enthusiastic sholar. It is stimulating, because the student or reader is not told exactly what the Romanesque style was. He is given all of the ingredients and invited to formulate his own definition.
Friday, April 3, 2020
First. Literature Defined:* Ã¢â¬Å"The creative activity of literature is a uniquely human activity. Born of manÃ¢â¬â¢s timeless desire to understand. express. and eventually portion experiences. Ã¢â¬ * Literature is Ã¢â¬Å"a concrete artefact Ã¢â¬â a narrative. a verse form. or a playÃ¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"The medium of interlingual rendition. of class. is linguistic communication. the written and spoken word. Ã¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"When we speak of literature. nevertheless. we have in head a particular sort of linguistic communication that differs from the ordinary discourse with which we conduct our day-to-day personal businesss. The term literature. . . refers to linguistic communication that is intentionally structured in such a manner as to hold identifiable artistic qualities. Ã¢â¬ 1. ) Reading for Vicarious Escape* Literature can offer Ã¢â¬Å"exciting narrations that can be read uncritically merely because they allow us to get away the jobs and duties of our mundane lives and to take part. nevertheless briefly. in a universe of experience that differs radically from our ain. We will write a custom essay sample on Why Do We Read Literature? Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Ã¢â¬ * Examples: the undercover agent or detective narrative ; scientific discipline fiction ; historical novels * We read for the merriment of it. * Ã¢â¬Å"Many plants of literature. classics every bit good as paper-back book mush. last exactly because they win in temporarily detaching us from clip and topographic point and transporting us to some fanciful universe that we otherwise would neer cognize. Ã¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"Although some people tend to see such a motivation as stripling or even philistine. the fact remains that literature flourishes. in portion at least. because of the freedom and get away it affords our imaginativeness. Ã¢â¬ * And for those plants which do non look like Ã¢â¬Å"escape. Ã¢â¬ we should inquire what they have that have led them to Ã¢â¬Å"surviveÃ¢â¬ over clip! 2. ) Reading to Learn* Ã¢â¬Å"Literature offers the reader Ã¢â¬ËknowledgeÃ¢â¬â¢ in the signifier of information. . . information that at the clip is all the more absorbing because it is portion of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s re-created universe. Ã¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"Literature read in this manner serves as a societal papers. giving us insight into the Torahs. imposts. establishments. attitudes. and values of the age in which it was written or in which it is set. Ã¢â¬ * Literature Ã¢â¬Å"broadens our cognition of the universe. [ However. ] non all of this Ã¢â¬ËknowledgeÃ¢â¬â¢ is peculiarly valuable ; and much of it will be disregarded rapidly. Some of it may. in fact. turn out to be misdirecting or even false. and as such must ever be checked and verified against other beginnings. Ã¢â¬ 3. ) Reading to Confront Experience* Ã¢â¬Å"One of the most compelling facets of literature is its relationship to human experience. Reading is an act of battle and engagement. It is besides. at the same time. an act of elucidation and find. Literature allows us. as possibly no other medium can. the opportunity to get the better of the restrictions of our ain subjectiveness and those restrictions imposed by sex. age. societal and economic status. and the times in which we live. Literary characters offer us immediate entree to a broad scope of human experiences we otherwise might neer cognize. As readers we observe these charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ private every bit good as public lives. and go toilet to their innermost ideas. feelings. and motives. It is the really familiarity of this entree that explains why psychologists have traditionally found inventive literature a rich beginning for instance surveies to exemplify theories of personality and behaviour. Ã¢â¬ [ For illustration. the Oed ipal composite! ] * Ã¢â¬Å"The relationship between literature and experience. nevertheless. is a mutual one. Merely as literature allows us to take part in the experience of others. so excessively it has the power to form and change our attitudes and outlooks. To cognize why we identify with one character and non another may state us about the sort of individual we are or aspire to be. If we are sensitive and perceptive readers. we have much to larn from these brushs. which can enrich the quality and impact the way of our lives. though the precise effects of these brushs are impossible to foretell and will change from one reader to another. One grade of a Ã¢â¬ËgreatÃ¢â¬â¢ work of literature is its ability to hold an consequence on the reader. In the same manner. it is this affectional power of fiction. play. and poesy that helps to explicate the endurance of those plants we regard as classics. [ Works ] survive as classics because they have offered coevalss of readers the chance to clear up and possibly even modify their positions of life and besides because they shed life on the comple xness and ambiguity of human being. including the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s ain. Ã¢â¬ 4. ) Reading for Aesthetic Pleasure* Ã¢â¬Å"Literature can besides be read for the sheer aesthetic pleasance we take in good workmanship of any sort. Ã¢â¬ËA thing of beauty is a joy foreverÃ¢â¬â¢ is a phrase the poet John Keats has given us ; well-ordered and happy words are one of the few signifiers of immortality. Despite its other utilizations. a verse form. a drama. or a novel is a self-contained work of art. with a definable and describable construction and texture: it can be approached and appreciated on footings that are unambiguously its ain. What distinguishes literature from other signifiers of artistic looks is its trust on construction and manner in linguistic communication. Sensitive and experient readers will react to happy words. though they many non be ab initio witting of precisely what they are reacting to. or why. When that response is a positive 1. we speak of our sense of pleasance or delectation. in much the same manner that we respond to a picture. a piece of sculpture. or a musical composing. If we push our enquiry farther and seek to analyse our response. we begin to travel in the way of literary unfavorable judgment. Ã¢â¬ On Literary Criticism:* Ã¢â¬Å"Rumor to the contrary. literary unfavorable judgment is non an exercising in human inventiveness that professors of English engage in for its ain interest. Neither is the word unfavorable judgment to be confused with the sort of negativity and mistake determination we sometimes encounter in acerb book reappraisals. The fact of the affair is that the more we learn about how to near a narrative. verse form. or drama. the greater our grasp of a genuinely great work becomes. and greater still the sense of pleasance and enjoyment we can deduce from it. Literary unfavorable judgment is nil more. or less. than an effort to clear up. explicate. and measure our experience with a given literary work. Properly understood and properly employed. literary unfavorable judgment allows us to raise and so reply. nevertheless tentatively. certain basic inquiries about an authorÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishment and about the ways in which he or she achieved it. It besides allows us to organize some judgements about the comparative virtue or quality of the work as a whole. Ã¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"Like all organized Fieldss of academic survey. the survey of literature remainders on at least three cardinal premises that critics and readers must be willing to accept. * Literary unfavorable judgment. foremost of all. presupposes that a work of literary art contains certain important relationships and forms of significance that the reader-critic can retrieve and portion. Without such anterior understanding. of class. there can be no unfavorable judgment. for by definition there would be nil worthy of communicating. * Second. literary unfavorable judgment presupposes the ability of the reader-turned-critic to interpret his experience of the work into rational footings that can be communicated to and understood by others. * Third. literary unfavorable judgment presupposes that the criticÃ¢â¬â¢s experience of the work. one time organized and articulated. will be by and large compatible with the experience of other readers. This is non to connote that critics and other readers will ever see oculus to oculus. for of class they do non and neer will. It is to state that to be valid and valuable the criticÃ¢â¬â¢s reading of a work must harmonize. at least in a general manner. with what other intelligent readers over a sensible period of clip are willing to hold on and accept. Ã¢â¬ A Warning about Analysis:* Ã¢â¬Å"The analytical method. it should be noted. is merely one of a figure of attacks taken by critics in their geographic expedition and survey of literature. It is true that by concentrating our attending entirely on the literary work we run the hazard of minimising. or disregarding wholly. many other factors that might otherwise contribute to our apprehension. With the analytical method. for illustration. we tend to overlook * the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose in composing the work. * the relationship between the work and the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s life and experience. * or the even broader relationship between the work and the historical civilization in which it was written and to which it was originally directed. * The analytical method besides tends to disregard the critical relationship of literature to human experience in general and to the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s ain experiences in peculiar. Ã¢â¬
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Duke TIP ACT Score Requirements SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Maybe youÃ¢â¬â¢ve read our article about DukeÃ¢â¬â¢s Talent Identification Program (TIP), maybe youÃ¢â¬â¢ve heard about it from other students, or maybe you did your own research. You've heard vague hints of "score requirements," but don't know exactly what that means- do you have to take the ACT in order to take part in TIP? How well do you have to do on the ACT in order to become a TIPster? (I refuse to believe that students who participate in TIP do not go by this name.) There are ACT (or SAT) score requirements for the Duke TIP: specifically, there are score requirements for Summer Studies programs and eStudies courses. I'm going to cover this complicated topic in exhaustive detail, explaining what the programs are, what the ACT score requirements are, and giving you some tips on how to meet these requirements. These requirements all refer to the regular ACT, not the ACT Aspire or ACT EXPLORE. Feature image credit: Ilyse Whitney/Flickr The Lay of the Land: Duke TIP Programs and Eligibility Of all the Duke TIP programs with SAT/ACT score requirements, the eStudies program has the lowest score requirements, followed by the Academy for Summer Studies, which falls in the middle, and the Center for Summer Studies, which is the most stringent when it comes to score requirements. These are not the same as the test requirements for the 7th Grade Talent Search, which you can find more about here. How do you figure out if you are eligible for Summer Studies programs or eStudies courses? TIP determines your eligibility based on your SAT or ACT scores. If you participate(d) in the 7th Grade Talent Search, you will take (or took) the SAT or ACT as part of that program (read more about this in my complete guide to the talent search). It is the score from this testing that will qualify you for Summer Studies and/or eStudies courses. Don't worry- you can always retest if your scores arenÃ¢â¬â¢t high enough to get you into the program(s) you want. If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve already taken the SAT or ACT as a 7th grader, you can still enroll in the 7th Grade Talent Search- you just have to do it using the paper application and include an official SAT/ACT score report. If you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t participate in the 7th Grade Talent Search, you can still participate in Summer Studies and eStudies courses using 8th-10th Grade Option, but I'll cover that in another article. For now, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll only be talking about the ACT score requirements for 7th and 8th-10th graders who did participate (or will be participating) in the 7th Grade Talent Search and are interested in attending Duke TIP Summer Studies and/or eStudies courses. A Word of Warning Currently, Duke TIP does not require participants to take the Writing portion of the ACT (that is, the essay). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s always possible, though, that Duke TIP may update its ACT score requirements. But don't worry- as more information becomes available, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll be sure to update this article to reflect current knowledge. Duke TIP Scores: The Particulars The Talent Identification Program has its ACT requirements for all Summer Studies courses in a table here and for eStudies courses over here. To be honest, I found the tables veryconfusing, especially when it came to figuring out Center for Summer Studies eligibility. To make it easier for any one in the future trying to figure out the score requirements, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve separated out the requirements for what you need to get into the Academy for Summer Studies, the Center for Summer Studies, and eStudies courses and ordered them from lowest to highest score requirements. Hopefully, since all the scores will be in one blog post, rather than spread out over a website, it will be less tricky to read and understand. To find specifics of the program you care about, just scroll down. As you will see below, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a difference in the requirements you have to meet if you take the ACT during 7th grade, as part of the 7th Grade Talent Search, or if you take it again later on (between 8th and 10th grades). ACT Requirements: eStudies What are Duke TIP eStudies courses? According to the Duke TIP website, the eStudies program offers online courses in a variety of different subjects, open to Ã¢â¬Å"seventh through eleventh graders who have achieved certain qualifying scores on theACT or SAT.Ã¢â¬ Out of all the Duke TIP courses, the eStudies courses have the lowest score requirements. The specific courses you can take, however, depends on your score on particular sections of the ACT. So what eStudies courses are you eligible for? Use this handy table to find out! If you took the ACT inÃ¢â¬ ¦ And scoredÃ¢â¬ ¦ You are eligible for... 7th grade Ã¢â° ¥ 17 on Math or Ã¢â° ¥ 19 on Science eStudies Math* Ã¢â° ¥ 18 on English or Ã¢â° ¥ 19 on Reading eStudies Verbal** 8th grade Ã¢â° ¥ 20 on Math or Ã¢â° ¥ 21 on Science eStudies Math Ã¢â° ¥ 21 on English or Reading eStudies Verbal 9th grade Ã¢â° ¥ 23 on Math or Science eStudies Math Ã¢â° ¥ 23 on English or Ã¢â° ¥ 24 on Reading eStudies Verbal 10th grade Ã¢â° ¥ 25 on Math or Science eStudies Math Ã¢â° ¥ 25 on English or Ã¢â° ¥ 27 on Reading eStudies Verbal *eStudies Math subjects include Fine Arts, Mathematics, Sciences, Social Sciences, and Technology. You do not qualify for Humanities courses unless either your ACT Math or Science score also reaches the threshold.**eStudies Verbal subjects include Fine Arts, Humanities, Sciences, Social Sciences, and Technology. You do not qualify for Mathematics courses unless either your ACT English or Reading score also reaches the threshold. What If I Just Barely DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Make It? On their site, Duke TIP states students who narrowly missed qualifying, are too old, orwho missed the enrollment period for Duke TIP's 7th Grade Talent Search can still join Duke TIP through 8th-10th Grade Option. Unfortunately, they don't define "narrowly," so it's hard to say when you should consider 8th-10th Grade Option. What is clear is that you can always retest on your own if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t meet the score qualifications for eStudies courses, or if you need a higher score to attend the Academy or Center for Summer Studies. We have more information about the application process in our article about the Duke TIP 7th Grade Talent Search. ACT Score Requirement: Academy for Summer Studies The Academy for Summer Studies at Duke TIP offers high-achieving students in grades 7-10 summer classes and interaction with similarly gifted peers. How do you know if your ACT scores qualify you for the Academy for Summer Studies? You're eligible for the Duke TIP Academy for Summer Studies Math classes if you... Took the ACT in... And on Math scored between... Or on Science scored between... 7th grade 19-22 20-22 8th grade 23-24 9th grade 25-26 10th grade 27-28 You're eligible for the Duke TIP Academy for Summer Studies Verbal classes if you... Took the ACT in... And on English scored between... Or on Reading scored between... 7th grade 20-22 20-23 8th grade 23-24 24-25 9th grade 25-27 26-29 10th grade 28-30 30-31 Note: while you can take Academy classes in all subject areas if you have an eligible ACT Math or Science score, if you only have an eligible ACT English or Reading score, then you may only take classes in Fine Arts, Humanities, Sciences, or Social Sciences- you are not eligible to take Mathematics or Technology courses. SCORE logo by Score, in the Public Domain. ACT Score Requirement: Center for Summer Studies The Center for Summer Studies is another summer program offered by Duke TIP; the difference between the Center and the Academy is in the intensity of the courses and the stringency and specificity of the score requirements. Again, weÃ¢â¬â¢ve compiled the information from the TIP website into a simpler, easier-to-understand form, dividing up information for 7th-10th graders and 8th-10th graders into two separate tables (one for Center Math classes and one for Center Verbal classes). You're eligible for the Duke TIP Center for Summer Studies Math classes if you... Took the ACT in... And on Math or Science scored... 7th grade Ã¢â° ¥ 23 8th grade Ã¢â° ¥ 25 9th grade Ã¢â° ¥ 27 10th grade Ã¢â° ¥ 29 You're eligible for the Duke TIP Center for Summer Studies Verbal classes if you... Took the ACT in... And on English scored... Or on Reading scored... 7th grade Ã¢â° ¥ 23 Ã¢â° ¥ 24 8th grade Ã¢â° ¥ 25 Ã¢â° ¥ 26 9th grade Ã¢â° ¥ 28 Ã¢â° ¥ 28 10th grade Ã¢â° ¥ 31 Ã¢â° ¥ 30 Duke TIP Score Requirements: A Few Final Notes For Summer Studies courses, you may only apply to the level for which you are qualified. This not only means that you can't apply to the Center for Summer Studies if your score only qualifies you for Academy courses (which makes sense), but that you can't apply to the Academy for Summer Studies if your score is higher than their score requirements- instead, you may only apply to the Center for Summer Studies. On their Test Prep page, Duke TIP has the following to say about their score requirements: Ã¢â¬Å"We do not recommend that students spend a lot of time preparing for the test. Above-grade-level testing is meant to be diagnostic, and many test prep programs just make students anxious.We think the best way to prepare is to be familiar with the structure of the test and the timing of each section, and to review the practice questions we provide so that you know what to expect and are at east on test day.Ã¢â¬ [Source: Test Prep | Duke TIP. Accessed 2019-07-19.] And look, when youÃ¢â¬â¢re taking the ACT as a 7th or 8th grader, you don't need to worry about getting an ACT score that will get you into college. In fact, we have a series of articles about what a good ACT score for a 7th grader and an 8th grader might be, based on extrapolations from data from Duke TIP and John Hopkins CTY. We also have information about what a good score for a 9th and 10th grader might be, but if you're taking the ACT in high school, you'll want to check to see if you're interested in any schools that require all scores sent, and if so, what score target you want to be aiming for. How Do I Meet The Requirements? 4...TIPS (you knew that was coming) #1: Spend time prepping. Yes, I know I just quoted the Duke TIP site, which advises the opposite, but let's be realistic: you'll need at least some test prep. This in no way means that you should invest in any kind of ACT prep course- just that, at the bare minimum, you'll want to familiarize yourself with the ACT's structure and timing. You should take a practice test to gauge where you are, then use this information to determine the amount you have to improve to meet the qualifications for your desired program. Know how much time you have to study so you can plan your prep accordingly. If you only have a few weeks before the ACT, you'll want to study more hours per week than if you have several months left. For more advice, read our articles about taking the ACT in 7th and 8th grade. #2: Take the ACT as early as you can and still feel prepared. If you take the ACT earlier on, you have a lower score threshold to meet (compare the 7th grade vs 8th-10th grade requirements for eStudies, Academy, and Center courses). In general, older students know more than younger students (stop rolling your eyes, younger siblings), but if you've spent time prepping, it's worth it to take it sooner rather than later. #3: If you have a standout test section, focus on it. Duke TIP is unlike most colleges and universities in that you can get in to its various programs even if you only do well on one section of the ACT. If you find that you're getting in practice scores of around 16 for English and Math but 25 for Reading and Science, own it. In the above example, you're better off putting in the time to make sure you can consistently get above the score threshold for Reading and/or Science (depending on whether you want to take Humanities or Math/Science courses) than you are trying to bring up all four of your section scores. #4: Know the ACT strategies that are appropriate for your level. Advice for getting a 36 on a section will not necessarily be relevant if you only need to get above a 26. One example of this is that if youÃ¢â¬â¢re aiming for a 26, you can skip the hardest 20% of questions entirely and just focus on answering as many of the easier questions correctly as possible (although since the ACT does not penalize for wrong answers, make sure to leave no space blank, even if you end up choosing Ã¢â¬Å"BÃ¢â¬ every time). We have more useful information like this in our article on how to guess correctly on the ACT. Handshake by Quinn Dombrowski, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. Hello, ACT Score Requirements, nice to finally meet you. I hope this article helped clarify the mystery of what the ACT score requirements for Duke TIP are. If you'd rather take the SAT, be sure to read our SAT edition of this article. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? Curious about what the Duke TIP 7th Grade Talent Search is? I demystify Duke TIP in this complete guide. Delve into our trove of ACT strategies by reading through our collection of blog posts on that very topic. What's a good 7th grade ACT score in general? Want to improve your ACT score by 4+ points? Download our free guide to the top 5 strategies you need in your prep to improve your ACT score dramatically.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Restoring Capital Punishment in the United Kingdom - Essay Example In certain countries that retain capital punishment, the delay between the actual verdict given and the execution carried out could go for many years as the convicted person would be allowed to go through many tribunals although excessive delay can also lead to basic human rights violation3. Most prisoners appeal against the death sentence due to the survival instinct although such a struggle may itself be a basic human rights violation that would prohibit cruelty in any form4. The death row phenomenon as this is called could pressurize states to modify their procedures or even abandon capital punishment. Supporters of capital punishment argue that such form of punishment would deter crime and would be an appropriate punishment for murder. As Murray notes, a major justification for capital punishment is the perceived public support although the complexity of the death penalty may not be generally understood by most people5. Murray aimed to examine the stability of the attitudes on the fair application of the death penalty and what are the public opinions regarding the fairness and administration of capital punishment. The complexity of these attitudes was analyzed with a telephone survey and the results indicated instability in attitudes regarding the application of capital punishment although many seem to think that the application of the death penalty is not fair in many cases. Murray concluded his study by suggesting that, 'the justification for capital punishment may rest on oversimplified conceptions of attitudes toward the death penalty and its application'6.